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Researches on Cellulose

written by "Cross, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1855-"
...y of the ketoses. NITRATED CARBOHYDRATES AS FOOD MATERIAL FOR MOULDS. Thomas Bokorny (Chem. Zeit., 1896, 20, 985-986). (p. 38) Cellulose trinitrate (nitrocellulose) will serve as a food supply for moulds when suspended in distilled water containing the requisite mineral matter and placed in the dark. The growth is rapid, and a considerable quantity of the vegetable growth accumulates round the masses of cellulose nitrate, but no growth is observed if mineral matter is absent. Cellulose itself cannot act as a food supply, and it seems probable that if glycerol is present cellulose nitrate is no longer made use of. NITRATION OF CELLULOSE, HYDROCELLULOSE, AND OXYCELLULOSE. Leo Vignon (Compt. rend., 1898, 126, 1658-1661). (p. 38) Repeated treatment of cellulose, hydrocellulose, and oxycellulose with a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids in[Pg 44] large excess, together with successive analyses of the compounds produced, showed that the final product of the reaction corresponded, in each case, with the fixation of 11 NO groups by a molecule containing 24 atoms of carbon. On exposure to air, nitrohydrocellulose becomes yellow and decomposes; nitro-oxycellulose is rather more stable, whilst nitrocellulose is unaffected. The behaviour of these nitro-derivatives with Schiff's reagent, Fehling's solution, and potash show that all three possess aldehydic characters, which are most marked in the case of nitro-oxycellulose. The latter also, when distilled with hydrochloric acid, yields a larger proportion of furfuraldehyde than is obtained from nitrocellulose and nitrohydrocellulose. CELLULOSE NITRATES-EXPLOSIVES. (p. 38) The uses of the cellulose nitrates as a basis for explosives are limited by their fibrous character. The conversion of these products into the structureless homogeneous solid or semi-solid form has the effect of controlling their combustion. The use of nitroglycerin as an agent for this purpose gives the...

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