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For Commercial, Industrial, and Domestic Arts Schools; Also Adapted to Those Engaged in Wholesale and Retail Dry Goods, Wool, Cotton, and Dressmaker's Trades

written by "Dooley, William H. (William Henry), 1880-"
... cool suddenly. [Pg 74] This change is due to the physical properties of the wool fiber. Such goods as beavers, kerseys, meltons, and fancy cassimeres are seldom fulled more than one-sixth of their woven width, while worsted goods are shrunk but a small fraction of their woven width. The amount of fulling received is the distinguishing feature of many varieties of cloth. In the treatment of broadcloth, doeskin, and all nap finished woolens, the fulling is carried to a point where the fibers become densely matted, obliterating all traces of the weave and giving the cloth the appearance of felt. Crabbing. After the cloth has been dried in the hydro extractor, where it throws off superfluous moisture, it must be stretched full width for the future finishing processes, and “set” at this width. Crabbing consists of two operations, first the loosening process, then the setting process. Goods are run on a cylinder, then passed over several rolls, and are kept tight so as to avoid wrinkles. The cylinders are immersed in hot water and the goods are allowed to rotate in this water for about twenty minutes, after which they are taken out for one or two hours. They are then returned to the machine for about twenty-five minutes and are subjected to boiling and also to additional pressure. The boiling water sets the fabric and the additional pressure gives the desired finish. Tentering. The object of tentering[14] is to straighten and level the fabric. After the cloth leaves the [Pg 75] tentering machine it has lost its natural moisture, and is not at all fitted, as far as fiber condition is concerned, for the napping. To bring it into a fit state for this operation it is passed through a trough containing a brush which gives it the desired moisture. It is then ready for napping. Napping. Most cloths at this stage of finishing are more or less unsightly on account of long and irregular fibers on the surface. ...

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