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A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons
Exhibiting the Fraudulent Sophistications of Bread, Beer, Wine, Spiritous Liquors, Tea, Coffee, Cream, Confectionery, Vinegar, Mustard, Pepper, Cheese, Olive Oil, Pickles, and Other Articles Em

written by "Accum, Friedrich Christian, 1769-1838"
...s more air, has a more lively taste than river water. Hence the insipid or vapid taste of newly boiled water, from which these gases are expelled: fish cannot live in water deprived of those elastic fluids. 100 cubic inches of the New River water, with which part of this metropolis is supplied, contains 2,25 of carbonic acid, and 1,25 of common air. The water of the river Thames contains rather a larger quantity of common air, and a smaller portion of carbonic acid. If water not fully saturated with common air be agitated with this elastic fluid, a portion of the air is absorbed; but the two chief constituent gases of the atmosphere, the oxygen and nitrogen, are not [Pg 39]equally affected, the former being absorbed in preference to the latter. According to Mr. Dalton, in agitating water with atmospheric air, consisting of 79 of nitrogen, and 21 of oxygen, the water absorbs 1/64 of 79/100 nitrogen gas = 1,234, and 1/27 of 21/100 oxygen gas = 778, amounting in all to 2,012. Water is freed from foreign matter by distillation: and for any chemical process in which accuracy is requisite, distilled water must be used. Hard waters may, in general, be cured in part, by dropping into them a solution of sub-carbonate of potash; or, if the hardness be owing only to the presence of super-carbonate of lime, mere boiling will greatly remedy the defect; part of the carbonic acid flies off, and a neutral carbonate of lime falls down to the bottom; it may then be used for washing, scarcely curdling soap. But if the hardness be owing in part to sulphate of lime, boiling does not soften it at all. When spring water is used for washing, it is advantageous to leave it for some time exposed to the open air in a reservoir with a large surface. Part of the carbonic acid becomes thus dissipated, and part of the carbonate of lime falls to the bottom. Mr. [Pg 40]Dalton[11] has observed that the more any spring is drawn from, the softer the water be...

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