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The Science of Human Nature
A Psychology for Beginners

written by "Pyle, William Henry, 1875-"
...ars. Write an essay on Habit and Life. Make a complete outline of the chapter. REFERENCES FOR CLASS READING Colvin and Bagley: Human Behavior, Chapters XI and XVII. Pillsbury: Essentials of Psychology, pp. 48–59; also Chapter XV. Pyle: The Outlines of Educational Psychology, Chapters X, XI, and XII. Rowe: Habit Formation, Chapters V–XIII. Titchener: A Beginner’s Psychology, p. 169, par. 37.  CHAPTER VII MEMORY Perceptions and Ideas. In a previous chapter, brief mention was made of the difference between perceptions and ideas. This distinction must now be enlarged upon and made clearer. Perceptions arise out of our sensory life. We see things when these things are before our eyes. We hear things when these things produce air vibrations which affect our ears. We smell things when tiny particles from them come into contact with a small patch of sensitive membrane in our noses. We taste substances when these substances are in our mouths. Now, this seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, etc., is perceiving. We perceive a thing when the thing is actually at the time affecting some one or more of our sense organs. A perception, then, results from the stimulation of a sense organ. Perception is the process of perceiving, sensing, objects in the external world. Ideas are our seeming to see, hear, smell, taste things when these things are not present to the senses. This morning I saw, had a perception of, a robin. To-night in my study, I have an idea of a robin. This morning the robin was present. Light reflected from it stimulated my eye. To-night, as I have an idea of the robin, it is not here; I only seem to see it. The scene which was mine this morning is now revived,  reproduced. We may say, therefore, that ideas are the conscious representatives of objects which are not present to the senses. Ideas are revived experiences. Revived experienc...

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