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Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. LXVIII, Sept. 1910
The New York Tunnel Extension of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
The East River Tunnels. Paper No. 1159

written by "Brace, James H."
...ddle of January, on the rock berm surrounding the 20 by 50-ft. shaft and about 15 ft. below the surface. Fig. 3, Plate LXIV, shows the cutting edge of the caisson assembled. The excavation of the small[Pg 431] shaft had shown that hard rock and only a very small quantity of water would be encountered, and that the caisson need be sunk only a short distance below the rock surface. Therefore, no working-chamber roof was provided, the caisson was built to a height of only 40 ft., and the circular openings were permanently closed. The assembling of the caisson took 2-1/2 months, and on April 2d lowering was started. Inverted brackets were bolted temporarily to the cutting-edge stiffening brackets, and the sinking was carried on by methods similar to those used at Long Island. The jacks and blocking supporting the caisson are shown in Fig. 4, Plate LXIV. As soon as the cutting edge entered the rock, which was drilled about 6 in. outside of the neat lines, the space surrounding the caisson was back-filled with clay and muck to steady it and provide skin friction. As the friction increased, the walls were filled with concrete, and as the caisson slowly settled, it was checked and guided by blocking. The cutting edge finally came to rest 31 ft. below mean high water, the sinking having been accomplished in about seven weeks, at an average rate of 0.50 ft. per day. The final position of the cutting edge in relation to its designed position is shown in Table 1. A berm about 4 ft. wide was left at the foot of the caisson below which the rock was somewhat fissured and required timbering. The cutting edge of the caisson was sealed to the rock with grout on the outside and a concrete base to the caisson walls on the inside, the latter resting on the 4-ft. berm. Following the completion of the shaft, the permanent sump was excavated to grade for use during construction. North Shaft.—The north shaft had to be sunk in a very restricted ar...

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