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The Gate to Cæsar
written by "Caesar, Julius, 100 BC-44 BC"
...l have reached; then regularly such a future perfect is changed to the pluperfect subjunctive in indirect discourse after a past tense. See note on chap 9, l. 10.   8. sarcinis: “Besides his arms, the Roman soldier carried stakes (vālli), used for the palisades of the camp, food and utensils, a saw, a spade, a chain for his prisoners, and other things. He was loaded like a mule.” —Long. qua pulsa: if this legion were beaten. futūrum (esse): depends on dēmōnstrārunt; the result would be.   9. Nervii autem: now the Nervii. Nervii is the subject of effēcerant. This long sentence is not so difficult as it at first seems. Follow closely the Latin order to discover the sense, render quo in order that, effēcerant had caused, and īnstar like. 11. teneris ... ēnātis: by lopping the trees when young, and intertwining the branches which grew out thick in a lateral direction; ēnātis from ēnāscor. 12. interiectis: it does not appear possible to take this word in the sense given to it in the dictionaries, thrown or stuffed in. So Moberly translates, “by throwing in brambles and thorns for the present occasion.” But is it to be supposed that this was done everywhere? If not, how would the Nervii know where to do it? Moreover, what they had done was done antīquitus, from of old. Translate, therefore, by planting among them. 59 14. quo nōn modo nōn ... sed ne ... quidem: this formula, or (without second nōn) nōn modo ... sed ne ... quidem, is usually awkwardly rendered, not only not, but not even. Instead, translate as if the first member were complete in itself (suppressing modo), followed by nay, nor even, thus: which it was not possible to pass through, nay, nor even see through. 15. Hīs rēbus: by these obstacles. 16. nōn ... cōnsilium: they ought not to disregard the advice. Page 32,   4. impedīmentōrum: here, baggage animals; impedīmen...

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